Treatment Models

Treatment Models 2017-10-24T15:03:27+00:00

Definition: AF-CBT represents an approach to working with physically abused children and their offending caregivers that incorporates therapeutic principles/procedures from several areas, included learning/behavioral theory, family-systems, cognitive therapy, and developmental victimology. Modalities of treatment have included parallel individual and family sessions.

Focus: Physical abuse or exposure to harsh/excessive punishment/discipline. Emotional abuse/verbal aggression, physical aggression or family conflict/coercion.

Intended Client Ages: Children ages 5-17, along with a caregiver (offending or non-offending)

Length Of Treatment: 12-24 sessions over 3-6 months

Therapist Training:

  • PLMHP, PCMSW, LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc
  • Complete pre-training online assessment
  • Participate in all scheduled trainings
  • Participate in 75% of consultation calls, presenting on 2 cases during consultation and also submit audio files for 2 cases
  • Complete post-training online assessment (80% or higher)
  • Complete 2 AF-CBT cases and submit case completion verification forms
  • Developer time frame for trainings and consultation calls is 1 year. Test and case completion are after 1 year.
  • 5 year renewal period

Summary: AF-CBT represents an approach to working with physically abused children and their offending caregivers that incorporates therapeutic principles/procedures from several areas, included learning/behavioral theory, family-systems, cognitive therapy, and developmental victimology.

Definition: Short-term, crisis-oriented intervention for trauma, including single event or chronic, multiple, and complex trauma exposure. CFTSI aims to reduce traumatic stress symptoms and prevent chronic PTSD, improve screening and initial assessment of children impacted by traumatic stress, and assess longer-term treatment needs. CFTSI provides a seamless introduction to longer-term treatment and other mental health interventions.

Focus: For children immediately after exposure to a traumatic event or disclosure of physical or sexual abuse.

Intended Client Ages: Ages 7-18, along with a parent/caregiver

Length Of Treatment: 4-6 sessions

Therapist Training:

  • Possibly provisional, LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc.
  • Attend the 2-day basic CF-TSI training conducted by a master trainer
  • Attend and actively participate in a minimum of 9 out of 12 follow-up consultation calls
  • Complete a minimum of 3 CF-TSI cases during the time frame of the follow-up consultation calls (approximately 6-7 months)

Summary: Short-term, crisis-oriented intervention for trauma, including single event or chronic, multiple, and complex trauma exposure.

Definition: An intervention for children and their parents who have experienced at least one form of trauma, and presenting with attachment problems or difficult behaviors as a result. The goal of this model is to strengthen the parent-child relationship, so that the child’s sense of safety and attachment can be repaired. Over the course of treatment, caregiver and child are guided to create a joint narrative of the psychological traumatic event and identify and address traumatic triggers that generate dysregulated behaviors and affect.

Focus: Impact of trauma on parent-child relationship; domestic violence, maltreatment.

Intended Client Ages: Ages 0-6, along with parent/caregiver

Length Of Treatment: Average of 50 sessions

Therapist Training:

  • LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc. (no provisional)
  • Complete a 2 day workshop of standard CPP training
  • Case completion on a minimum of 2 cases (1 year) and remain in at least twice a month contact for 1.5 years
  • Complete 2 one-day CPP CEU workshops/booster sessions within 2 years

The Nebraska Resource Project for Vulnerable Young Children (NRPVYC) is a major partner in expanding Child Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) in Nebraska. NRPVYC’s website provides helpful resources as well as information for anyone interested in the process to become a CPP Provider. http://www.nebraskababies.com/child-parent-psychotherapy-cpp

Interested in becoming a CPP Provider: http://www.nebraskababies.com/process-become-cpp-provider

Summary: An intervention for children and their parents who have experienced at least one form of trauma, and presenting with attachment problems or difficult behaviors as a result.

Definition: CBITS is a skills-based, child group intervention that is aimed at relieving symptoms of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety among children exposed to multiple forms of trauma. Cognitive-behavioral techniques are used (psychoeducation, relaxation, social problem-solving, cognitive restructuring, and exposure).

Focus: School-aged children who have been exposed to violence or other forms of trauma

Intended Client Ages: Ages 9-18

Length Of Treatment: 10 weeks (10 groups sessions, 1-3 individual sessions, 2 parent psychoeducational sessions, 1 teacher educational session)

Therapist Training:

  • Provisional, LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc.
  • Training is recommended, not requierd, and therefore not regulated. 2 types of training offered.
  • Free online training which gives access to the videotaped training course, along with advice from the intervention developers and experienced CBITS providers, downloadable materials, a list of resources, and an online community to take part in peer-to-peer dicsussion boards, document sharing, and Ask an Expert
  • OR an in-person training which is two to two and one half day on-site trainings, consisting of session-by-session instruction, demonstrations, role-plays, and practice.

Summary: CBITS is a skills-based, child group intervention that is aimed at relieving symptoms of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety among children exposed to multiple forms of trauma.

Definition: The goal of EMDR is to process distressing memories associated with traumatic events, reducing their lingering effects and allowing the client to develop more adaptive coping mechanisms. This is done in an eight-step protocol that includes having clients recall distressing images while receiving one of several types of bilateral sensory input, including side to side eye movements.

Focus: Distress associated with traumatic memories

Intended Client Ages: Ages 3 and up (can be used in conjunction with play therapy)

Length Of Treatment: 8 phases of treatment

Therapist Training:

  • Provisional, LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc.
  • Completion of Part I and Part II EMDR training (6 days total)
  • 10 hours of consultation
  • Clinicians completing these will obtain a certificate of completion
  • 12 hours of specialized EMDR training
  • 20 additional hours of consultation

Summary: The goal of EMDR is to process distressing memories associated with traumatic events, reducing their lingering effects and allowing the client to develop more adaptive coping mechanisms.

Definition: FFT is designed to improve within-family attributions, family communication and supportiveness while decreasing intense negativity and dysfunctional patterns of behavior. Parenting skills, youth compliance, and the complete range of behaviors (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) domains are targeted for change based on the specific risk and protective factor profile of each family.

Focus: Short-term, family-based therapeutic intervention for delinquent youth at risk for institutionalization and their families.

Intended Client Ages: Ages 11-18

Length Of Treatment: 8-12 one-hour sessions for mild cases and up to 30 sessions of direct service for more difficult situations

Therapist Training:

  • Phase I: Directed to the development of adherence and competent FFT therapists (12-18 months)
    • One-Day on-site implementation/assessment and CSS (clinical services system) training
    • Two-Day on-site clinical training
    • Begin Cases
    • Ongoing telephone supervision
    • Externship (clinical team must identify one team member to attend): consists of three separate training experiences over a three month period at an off-site location
    • Two-Day follow-up visits (3 per site during year 1)
    • Two-Day off-site clinical training (occurs during months 8-9 of initial training year)
  • Phase II (to be started after month 8 of Phase I)
    • Aimed at developing on-site clinical supervisors and implementing quality assurance and improvement procedures to maintain high model fidelity
  • Phase III: Provides on-going continuing education, technical assistance and ongoing quality improvement

Summary: FFT is designed to improve within-family attributions, family communication and supportiveness while decreasing intense negativity and dysfunctional patterns of behavior.

Definition: Intensive family and community-based treatment program that focuses on addressing all environmental systems that impact chronic and violent juvenile offenders, their homes and families, schools and teachers, neighborhoods and friends. MST recognizes that each system plays a critical role in a youth’s world and each system requires attention when effective change is needed to improve the quality of life for youth and their families. The goals of this model include increasing parenting skills and changing the behavior of the youth. Therapists are on-call 24 hours a day and meet with the youth and family in the youth’s environment.

Focus: Helping chronic youth offenders develop healthier coping skills and make positive choices.

Intended Client Ages: Ages 12-18, along with their families. MST targets chronic, serious, violent, and substance abusing juvenile offenders. Inappropriate referrals include youth referred for primarily psychiatric behaviors (actively suicidal, actively homicidal, actively psychotic, etc.) and youth referred for sex offenses.

Length Of Treatment: 3-5 months. Therapists generally spend more time with families in the initial weeks (daily if needed) and gradually taper their time (to as infrequently as once a week) over the 3- to 5-month course of treatment.

Therapist Training:

  • MST Therapists must be full-time employees assigned to the MST program solely; with a case load of 4-6 families (not to exceed 6)
  • MST Therapists must operate in teams of no fewer than 2 or more than 4 therapists (plus clinical supervisor which should be Ph. D level professionals) and use a home based model of service delivery
  • Pre-training program start-up services (assessment completed by MST Program Developer of organization’s ability to successfully implement MST)
  • Initial 5-Day Orientation training, prior to accepting cases
  • Weekly phone consultation with the MST consultant for each team of clinicians
  • Quarterly one and a half day booster trainings
  • Ongoing organizational assistance

Summary: Intensive family and community-based treatment program that focuses on addressing all environmental systems that impact chronic and violent juvenile offenders, their homes and families, schools and teachers, neighborhoods and friends.

Definition: PCIT is a treatment model with highly specified, step-by-step, live coached sessions with both the parent/caregiver and the child. Parents learn skills through PCIT didactic sessions. Using a transmitter and receiver system, the parent is coached in specific skills as he or she interacts in specific play with the child. The therapist provides coaching from behind a one-way mirror. The emphasis is on changing negative parent-child patterns.

Focus: Children with acting out behaviors; impaired parent-child relationship; NOT for sexual abuse.

Intended Client Ages: Ages 2-12, along with parent/caregiver

Length Of Treatment: Average of 12-20 sessions. Treatment is complete when parent has mastered the CDI and PDI skills.

Therapist Training:

  • LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc. (Provisional may complete but cannot be certified)
  • Complete 40 hours of face-to-face training with a PCIT Trainer (or 10 hours onling training and 30 hours face-to-face)
  • Treatment session observed by a PCIT trainer
  • Complete the certified PCIT therapist applicaiton
  • 2-year renewal period (required to complete a minimum of 3 PCIT CEU’s to renew)

Summary: PCIT is a treatment model with highly specified, step-by-step, live coached sessions with both the parent/caregiver and the child.

Definition: The goal of TF-CBT is to help address the bio-psycho-social needs of children with PTSD or other problems related to traumatic life experiences, and their parents/ caregivers. This model combines trauma-sensitive interventions with cognitive behavioral therapy. Children and parents are provided with knowledge and skills related to processing the trauma; managing distressing thoughts; and enhancing safety, parenting skills, and family communication.

Focus: Sexual abuse, traumatic grief, domestic violence, disasters, terrorism, multiple traumatic events.

Intended Client Ages: Ages 3-21, along with parent/caregiver

Length Of Treatment: 12-25 sessions (60-90 minute sessions, divided approximately equally between youth and parent/caregiver)

Therapist Training:

  • LMHP, LIMHP, LCSW, Psych, etc. (no provisional)
  • Complete online TF-CBT web training
  • Participate in the live 2 day training
  • Completing 9 out of 12 consultation calls, staffing a case during the calls and completing a case during the course of the calls.
  • Completing 3 cases total, completing the application, and passing the TF-CBT Therapist Certification Program Knowledge-Based Test.
  • Developer time frame from start to finish is 2 years
  • 5 year renewal period

Summary: The goal of TF-CBT is to help address the bio-psycho-social needs of children with PTSD or other problems related to traumatic life experiences, and their parents/ caregivers.

  • Circle of Security (COS)
  • Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
  • Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)
  • Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)
  • Faith-Based
  • Motivational Interviewing
  • Play Therapy
  • Psychological First Aid
  • Training for Adoption Competency (TAC)

Nebraska Mental Health.com offers a general definition of common evaluations, however encourages individuals to check with their insurance carrier regarding specific evaluation requirements as they may differ by carrier.